Theories that can help teachers/trainers/e-learning designers to think like educators, help students to improve their learning ability, and also help Software Developers in developing domain competence and readiness

Posted on July 20, 2010

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Author:  Sanjay Goel, http://in.linkedin.com/in/sgoel

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Here is  a chronological list of some important theories about human learning, intelligence, and thinking.  An understanding of at least some of these can help all teachers and trainers to evolve into educators.    I have found these theories to be very helpful in formulating my own perspective about  education and role of educators.

Since 2004, I have  also discussed many of these theories with hundreds  of  engineering students specialising in computing, as part of my undergraduate courses.  Interestingly, most of these students reported  that understanding of these theories helped them to improve their learning ability and also become a better team player because they could better empathize with others.

This set of theories is  also very useful  for e-learning designers.

Software Developers can also benefit tremendously from these and improve their domain learnability, sensitivity, and readiness.

Great Gurus’ Wisdom – What Socrates, Galileo, and Einstein said about teaching?

  1. Connectionism (Thorndike, 1913)
  2. Genetic epistemology (Piaget, 1915)
  3. Theory of Curriculum (Bobbit, 1918)
  4. Social development theory (Vygotsky, 1920s)
  5. Gestalt theory (Wertheimer, 1924).
  6. Theory of cognitive development (Piaget, 1930s onwards)
  7. Contiguity theory (Guthrie, 1938)
  8. Fluid and crystallized intelligence (Cattell, 1941)
  9. A theory of human motivation (Maslow, 1943)  []
  10. Theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ/TIPS)  (Altshuller, 1946)
  11. Phenomenology (Rogers, 1951),
  12. Information processing theory (Miller, 1956)
  13. Taxonomy of educational objectives (Bloom, 1956)   []   [Identifying Educational Goals in terms of Graduates' Competencies: Some Important References]
  14. Cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957)  [Some Theoretical Perspectives about Learning and Teaching]
  15. Motivation to work (Herzber, 1959)
  16. Two cultures (Snow, 1959)
  17. Originality (Maltzman, 1960)
  18. Conditions of learning (Gagne, 1962)
  19. Systems thinking (Emery and Trist, 1965)
  20. Constructivist theory (Bruner, 1966)
  21. Structure of intellect (Guilford, 1967)
  22. Lateral thinking (Edward de Bono, 1967)
  23. Experiential learning (Rogers, 1960s)
  24. Sub-sumption theory (Ausubel, 1960s)
  25. The stage theory (Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968)
  26. ERG theory (Alderfer, 1969)  []
  27. Intellectual and ethical development (Perry, 1970)
  28. Androgogy (Knowles, 1970) [Some Theoretical Perspectives about Learning and Teaching]
  29. Levels of processing (Craik and Lockart, 1970s) [Some Theoretical Perspectives about Learning and Teaching]
  30. Framework of reflective activities (Borton, 1970)
  31. Conscious competence theory (Gordon Institute,   early 1970s)
  32. Classification of disciplines (Biglan, 1973)   []
  33. Attribution theory (Weiner, 1974)
  34. Conversation theory (Pask, 1976)
  35. Double loop learning (Chris Argyris, 1976)
  36. Approaches to learning (Marton and Saljo, 1976)
  37. Social learning theory (Bandura, 1977) [Some Theoretical Perspectives about Learning and Teaching]
  38. Theory of tri-archic intelligence (Sternberg, 1977)
  39. Script theory (Schank, 1970s and 80s) [Some Theoretical Perspectives about Learning and Teaching]
  40. Modes of learning (Norman and Rumelhart, 1978)
  41. Logical  categories of learning (Bateson, 1979) [Some Theoretical Perspectives about Learning and Teaching]
  42. Flow theory of motivation (Csikszentmihalyi,   1979)
  43. Four quadrant model of the brain (Herrmann, 1979)
  44. Repair theory (Brown and VanLehn, 1980)
  45. Self determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 1980 onwards)  []
  46. Adult learning theory (Cross, 1981)
  47. Structure of the Observed  Learning Outcomes  (SOLO) Taxonomy (Biggs and Collis, 1982) [Some Theoretical Perspectives about Learning and Teaching]
  48. Multiple intelligence theory (Gardner, 1983)
  49. Component display theory (Merrill, 1983)
  50. Tri-archaic theory of intelligence (Sternberg, 1970s and 80s)
  51. Learning style and experiential learning theory (Kolb, 1984)  []
  52. Concept mapping  and Vee mapping (Novak and Gowin, 1984)
  53. Nature of moral stages (Kohlberg, 1984)
  54. Mathematical problem solving (Schoenfeld, 1985)
  55. Intellectual functioning in three levels (Costa, 1985) [Identifying Educational Goals in terms of Graduates' Competencies: Some Important References]
  56. Levels of professional expertise (Dreyfus brothers, 1985)
  57. Women’s 5 ways of knowing  (Belenky et al, 1986)
  58. Cognitive load theory (Sweller, 1988)
  59. Cognitive apprenticeship (Collins et al, 1987)  [Some Theoretical Perspectives about Learning and Teaching]
  60. Four perspectives on professional expertise   (Kennedy, 1987)  [Identifying Educational Goals in terms of Graduates' Competencies: Some Important References]
  61. Knowing in action (Schön, 1987)
  62. 3P model (Biggs, 1987-99)
  63. Dimensions of learning (Marzano, 1988)
  64. Mental self-government learning theory (Sternberg, 1988)
  65. Style of learning and teaching (Entwistle, 1988)
  66. Framework for reflection (Gibbs, 1988)
  67. Cognitive load theory (J. Sweller, 1988)
  68. Framework for  reflection on action (Smyth, 1989)
  69. Minimalism (Carrol, 1990)
  70. Situated learning (Lave and Wenger, 1991)  [Some Theoretical Perspectives about Learning and Teaching]
  71. Investment theory of creativity (Sternberg, 1991)
  72. Curriculum integration (Fogarty, 1991) []
  73. Staged Self Directed Learning Model (Grow, 1991)
  74. Cognitive flexibility theory (Spiro et al, 1992) [Some Theoretical Perspectives about Learning and Teaching]
  75. Capability (Stephenson, 1992)
  76. Model of critical thinking (APA, 1992-2006)
  77. Epistemological reflection model (Baxter-Magolda,   1992)
  78. Value inventory (Schwartz, 1992)
  79. Learner managed learning (Graves, 1993)
  80. Reflective judgment model (King and Kitchener,  1994)
  81. Learning by design (Kolodner et al, 1995-2004)
  82. Model of critical thinking (Paul, 1996)
  83. Work-based learning (Gattegno, 1996; Hase, 1998).
  84. CHC theory (McGrew 1997, Flanagan 1998)
  85. Intelligence as developing expertise (Sternberg, 1997)
  86. Framework of learning style (Vermunt, 1998)
  87. Socialisation, Externalisation, Combination, and Internatisation (SECI) (Noanaka &Takeuchi, 1998)
  88. Action learning (Kemmis & McTaggart, 1998)
  89. Propulsion theory of creativity (Sternberg, 1999)
  90. Ergonagy (Tanaka and Evers, 1999)
  91. Constructivist alignment (Biggs, 1999)
  92. Phases in critical reflective inquiry  (Kim,1999)
  93. Collaborative learning (Dillenbourg, 1999)
  94. Heutagogy (Hase and Kenyon, 2000)
  95. Taxonomy of learning  (Marzano, 2000)  [Identifying Educational Goals in terms of Graduates' Competencies: Some Important References]
  96. Framework  of critical thinking (Minger, 2000)
  97. Taxonomy of Curriculum Integration (Harden 2000)  []
  98. Learning Style (Entwistle, 2001)
  99. Bloom’s revised taxonomy (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001) [Identifying Educational Goals in terms of Graduates' Competencies: Some Important References]
  100. Story centered curriculum (Schank, 2002) [Some Theoretical Perspectives about Learning and Teaching]
  101. Models of interplay between emotions and learning (Kort, 2001)
  102. Balance theory of wisdom (Sternberg, 2003)
  103. Community of practice ellipse (Medeni, 2004)
  104. Spiral of experience based action learning (SEAL) (Medeni, 2004)
  105. Taxonomy of knowledge Types (Carson, 2004)
  106. Theory of successful intelligence, (Sternberg, 2005)
  107. Framework for information and information processing  of learning systems (Rauterberg, 2005)
  108. Six factors of psychological well-being (Ryff & Singer, 2006)  []
  109. Fixed and Growth Mindsets (Carol Dweck, 2006)
  110. Teaching for wisdom, intelligence, creativity, and success‎ (Sternberg et al, 2009)
  111. Unified framework of pedagogic engagements in software development education  (Sanjay Goel, 2010) []

Reference and further details:

1.     

2.  

3.  

4.  Some Theoretical Perspectives about Learning and Teaching

5.

6.  

7.  

8.  

9.   Some Important Theories on Problem Solving

10.   Research on Engineering/Computing Education: Where to find and publish?

11.   Enriching the culture of Software development education through theories of knowledge and learning  (http://slidesha.re/hvji7a)

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Keywords: Software Engineering Education, Computing Education, Computer Science Education, Engineering Education, Information Technology Education, Information Systems Education, College Education, Higher Education, Professional Education

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